Layers of Culture

Culture is an influencial matter in our lives. It affects us all. Here, for the sake of its high impact and relativity to the field of Law, a basic summary of culture is explored below.

Like an onion, culture has several layers, which are all interactive and relative to one another. There are four main layers, which also have their own layers. The thicknesses of the layers vary from place to place, and it is very fluid and changeable.

Here are some of the key elements of culture:


Artefacts - [what is Done?] [What is collected?]

Resources, Food, Cloths

Knowledge, arts, housing, tools, Goals

Language, Routine,

Location, Time

Systems, institutions, traditions, customs, Rules

History, Exposure, Trade

Behaviours - [What is true?]

Norms (right & wrong), attitude [What is Enjoyable?]

Values (good & bad), belief [What is Good?]

Feelings [What are priorities?]

Basic/Core Assumptions/Values - [What is real?] [purpose & meaning]



As each element directly and indirectly impacts significantly on the people, the people themselves become an important part of the culture's change (and for a better or worst). So as a result, the people become one of the the main layer; otherwise, it could've been included as part of the Artefact, which will be really inaccurate.

Artefacts are inclusive of all the things visible about a group of people:

What is done? How its done? And ofcourse by whom as well!

The communications, routines, systems are all significant and very effective on people's education, knowledge, arts, and politics.

The location is very effective, as those who are on the mountainous region and are of high altitude are very different from those in Sahara or on the low altitude flat lands next to a river; and also the accessibility to other cultures; such elements will strongly impact on many things such as resources like food, clothing, etc, and the language, system, structure, politics, trades, and so on...

Behaviours is another integral layer in culture;

This part is about the norms in a society - what is right and or wrong? For example, the right way, to dress, to look, or to be, i.e. to be sexy; and the attitude which follows it; being uncool and or not sexy; looking stupid...

So this impacts on peoples' values - it is good to be sexy; it is bad to be not cool.

As a result, impacting on people's feelings, which will result in one''s priorities in life, which contributes to the synergy of the movement in the society;

Nowadays, in New Zealand for example, many house-wives rather be sexy than a traditional mother; many women like to look sexy and go to GYM to be sexy and put  sexy photographs on their facebook and or social media. Many women feel the need for plastic surgery particularly for breast implants; many wish to be like Kardashians, and the list continues...

When it comes to the core assumptions, it is all about the main underlying belief system that people use for their activities.

For example, before in the past, one's morals were of higher importance in one's life; but now, many share that the wealth is more significant; so getting money is the most important thing in life now (more than before).

Now here in New Zealand, our core values makes us approve organic and natural food more than processed foods, even though majority of kiwis eat less healthy; but probably better than Americans.

probably to be continued...